Resources for Treaties Recognition Week in Ontario

Posted by Andrew McConnell, Jasmine Wong & Erez Zobary on October 27, 2021

We are all treaty people, and it is important that we understand the role and significance of treaties and our responsibility to these important agreements. Across Canada, treaty days offer opportunities for celebration, teaching and improving our understanding of treaties. In Ontario, this takes place during the week of November 1-5. 

In preparation for this week, we have worked with educator Andrew McConnell (Anishinaabe/English, member of Nipissing First Nation) to publish a list of resources to support you with your learning and planning.

Be sure to review these important Pedagogical Considerations For Treaty Education from First Nations, Métis, & Inuit Education Association of Ontario.


  • First Nations Relationship to the Land: Since time immemorial, First Nations have had an intricate, respectful, spiritually and physically dependent, grateful, and protective tie to the land. The nature of this tie is not so much one of ownership but one of stewardship.

    As quoted from the article: “Traditional knowledge, languages, cultural practices and oral traditions built up over the millennia are all connected to the land. If that connection, that umbilical cord, is severed then the spiritual well-being of the affected First Nation is at stake.”

  • Learn more about the Two Row Wampum, a living treaty between the Haudenosaunee Confederacy nations and settlers that represents living together peacefully, respectfully and in communication.

  • Learn more about the 46 treaties that cover what is now the province of Ontario through this CBC article.

  • Modern day treaties: Learn about current land claims that have been accepted for negotiation or are being researched and assessed, and settlement agreements that are being implemented in Ontario. These current land claims are a reminder that treaties are ongoing, adaptable and unique for each nation.

    This map shows the largest land claim currently being negotiated and the province’s first modern-day treaty.

    Learn about the Huron Robinson Treaty negotiations and case through Robinson Huron Treaty Litigation Fund and their litigation timeline. Canada has accepted the ruling while Ontario appeals. The Ontario government has more work to do to honour and respect treaties.

  • Learn more about the Toronto Purchase with these resources via Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation, The Canadian Encyclopedia and Toronto Public Library.

  • Gakina Gidagwi'igoomin Anishinaabewiyang: We Are All Treaty People by Dr. Karine Duhamel focuses on the importance of understanding the spirit and intent of Treaties: "The intent of Treaties at the time of their negotiation was the protection and retention of rights to languages, ways of life, and existing belief systems. This undertaking is part of the original understanding of Treaty processes as ongoing relationships that are dynamic and adaptable."

Lesson Ideas/Courses


Learn more about how Idle No More resists unfair treaty terms and calls on all people to join a peaceful revolution to honour Indigenous sovereignty and to protect the land, water and sky.


We hope these resources help in your learning and planning. What resources are missing from this list? Share them in the comment section.


Topics: Canada, Indigenous History, Indigenous, Treaty, Decolonizing Schools, Treaties Recognition Week


This is where Canadian Facing History and Ourselves teachers and community members meet to share reflections, scholarship and teaching practices that will inspire, challenge and improve teaching and student learning. Our stories provide a window into diverse Facing History classrooms in Canada, and invite you into the discussion.

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