For many educators, back to school is a time of excitement; the idea of inspiring young readers, fostering new understanding, smelling and holding books together as a classroom community brings delight. You hope students will bee-line to the bookshelf during independent and community reading time.
Choosing a piece of literature for your course is an important decision. Take a moment to reflect on the very small number of books you will have the opportunity to introduce to your students in any given year. Stories have the potential to help students understand different perspectives, question their surroundings, and build empathy in meaningful and communal ways. With such an important role to play, these are some of the questions we encourage you to consider when deciding how to develop a course and which texts to teach:
This blog post is the 2nd in a multi-part series. Natalie Steele, an educator with Peel District School Board in Ontario, will be sharing additional resources and strategies for your classroom over the next few months on the topics of Black identities, humanizing stories, amplifying missing voices in the curriculum, and correcting the systemic abuses of history in schooling.
Why Historical Fiction?
One challenge when studying the history of marginalized peoples is often the histories of these groups have a limited amount of primary source materials available for research to draw from compared to the prolific amount of Eurocentric sources. In your search to find primary sources that help students to connect to the humanity of those held in bondage in an inhumane system, you may encounter many barriers, like language, accessing the actual resource because it's no longer in print and/or digital versions are not available, and/or the only copy available is far away with limited access.
A sampling of Indigenous authored resources for K-12 classrooms from the OISE library. [Photo courtesy of Desmond Wong.]
In a talk titled, What is Reconciliation, Chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Senator Justice Murray Sinclair, reflects:
“It took us a long time to get to this point, in terms of the relationship between Aboriginal people and this country. Seven generations of children went through the residential schools. And each of those children who were educated were told that their lives were not as good as the lives of non-Aboriginal people of this country. They were told that their languages and culture were irrelevant...at the same time that was going on, non-Aboriginal children...were also being told the same thing... So as a result, many generations of children...have been raised to think about things...in a way that is negative when it comes to Aboriginal people. We need to change that.”
Including Indigenous voices, worldviews and resources into classrooms throughout Canada is an essential part of that change. In doing so, it is equally essential to bring a breadth of resources into classrooms so students encounter a diversity and depth of lived experiences. The following post, written by Ontario Institute of Studies in Education librarian, Desmond Wong, helps us to do that.
When I graduated from teacher’s college, my goal was to teach high school music and history. I wanted to have discussions about the people and choices that shape society, the injustices of the past, and the levers that we have to create change. I spent a year supplying, and then in 2014/2015 I was got a position - much to my surprise - in a grade one classroom, and the following year, in a grade five/six split classroom.
May is Asian Heritage Month in Canada. The following are five resources that provide entry points that teachers can use to invite students to explore Canada’s history of immigration through identity and civic participation.
As a middle school educator, I often find myself in the position of being unable to explore really rich resources with my class due to mature content. Several years ago I purchased 5 sets of the graphic novel MAUS, hoping to one day use it as an option for book talks.
Topics: Books, Antisemitism, Choosing to Participate, Facing History Resources, Holocaust, History, Canada, Holocaust Education, current events, Middle School, genocide, Lesson Ideas, Holocaust and Human Behaviour
In 2015, Dr. Rob Simon, Associate Professor at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE), and students from his teacher education course partnered with Sarah Evis, a teacher from Delta Senior Alternative School in the Toronto District School Board (TDSB), and her grade 8 students, to study Art Spiegelman’s popular intergenerational Holocaust survivor memoir and graphic novel, Maus: A Survivor’s Tale.
Topics: Art, Books, Antisemitism, Choosing to Participate, Holocaust, Facing History and Ourselves, Innovative Classrooms, Holocaust Education, Middle School, Strategies, Culturally Responsive and Relevant Pedagogy, Night, genocide, Lesson Ideas, big paper, Inside a Genocide Classroom, Social Justice, Personal history
Here at Facing History and Ourselves, we are always reading! As the 8th Commandment of teaching Genocide says "Thou shalt read in order to understand how much more you need to read." As you readjust to being back from March Break feeling wonderfully refreshed, or are restlessly waiting for spring to arrive, and looking for something to pick up for a good read, here are some options, from us to you!
- A Convenient Hatred: The History of Antisemitism, by Phyllis Goldstein
This a wonderful resource from Facing History, but the fact that it is a Facing History resource is not the reason I include this book. Goldstein’s A Convenient Hatred provides a detailed explanation of the history of antisemitism and how it has adapted and persisted through time. This book has been an invaluable resource to me in helping to answer that recurring question: “Why did [they] hate Jewish people?” In fact, if I once had trouble answering that question, I now have troubling keeping my answer to that question to an accessible chunk.
As a classroom resource: the book is extensive in its purview of the subject and can be, as such, integrated into almost any history course (from ancient to modern studies). Moreover, being a Facing History publication, there are numerous resources available for using the book in the classroom. Of particular worth, I would advise taking a free online workshop associated with the text. The next begins March 15, 2013.
- The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, by Iris Chang
In The Rape of Nanking Iris Chang provides not only a detailed account of the events and their context, but she also offers a profound explanation for the motivation of the Japanese soldiers during the invasion of China. This book graphically details the horrors of human behaviour, broadens our understanding of World War II, demonstrates the effects of unchecked institutionalized discrimination, and details the politics of denial.
As a classroom resource: the writing is accessible intermediate academic and senior academic and applied readers. Of particular note for use in the classroom are Chang’s explanation of the profound effect of institutionalized discrimination on the behaviour of individuals (see “The Motives Behind Nanking,” pp. 54-59 and the classroom reading guide), and Chang’s address of the continued denial(see Chapter 10) of the event by the Japanese and the politics surrounding our ignorance of it in the West, a relevant theme to all discussions of genocide. The book includes graphic documents (primarily but not limited to photographs found between pages 146 and 147) of the atrocities that are incredibly thought provoking for mature students, but must be very carefully selected and reviewed with consideration to students’ capacity to deal with them (and the parents willingness to have them viewed by their children). It is worth noting that the stories and images Chang encountered while writing this book led her into increasingly deeper depression and, eventually, to suicide; this knowledge serves as a profound reminder that as we deal with human atrocities, we must consider and allow time to address our students’ own emotional reactions to these events. Iris Chang gives a historical overview and shares her insights into the Japanese military invasion of Nanking at http://vimeo.com/21218528.
- Extraordinary Evil: A Brief History of Genocide, by Barbara Coloroso
If Coloroso’s Extraordinary Evil can be described as reductionist in its approach to and description of genocide vis a vis bullying, it can nonetheless also be conceived of as a wonderful resource for teachers of genocide to help students connect with material that can be so difficult to conceptualize. Coloroso’s writing is accessible to high school students and the connections she makes are directly relevant to the school context. She makes a point of discussion and an argument for understanding how our actions matter, even on a small scale. She makes an excellent argument for the role of the upstander (Facing History defines an upstander as someone who takes a stand against injustice), and why that role is not one that should be conceived of as a contextual one, but rather a pervasive attitude and behaviour.
As a classroom resource: her discussion of the Bully Circle (pp. 83-84) is interesting and one that I have found helps students develop empathy. While few students can truly connect with the tragedy of a genocide, almost all students can relate to bullying. Having students make this connection (see page four of the activity attached for classroom application) through role play can be very effective, but, as always, we must know our class. If we suspect someone in the class is being bullied, having that person participate could be incredibly demeaning. Furthermore, in the consolidation of our role play, it would be good to emphasize that just because we can empathize with being bullied, does not mean we can (nor do we want students to) fully understand what it means to be a victim of a genocide. Role play is fun and develops empathy. Just make sure it remains role play! Coloroso’s website provides additional resources for discussing roles in bullying at KidsAreWorthIt.com.
- War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War, by John Dower
In War Without Mercy, Dower takes a close look at World War II and compares the nature of racism and warfare in the two primary theatres of the war: the European theatre and the Pacific theatre. In analyzing various data, he quickly notes that [for the Americans] the battles in the Pacific were far more brutal than those in Europe. Building on this, he argues that while in the European theatre there was a sense of shared humanity even between opposing soldiers, the racist attitudes that soldiers in both Japan and America were taught (and taught is the key word here) regarding the enemy heavily influenced the subsequent treatment of the enemy. Dower focuses on the media’s role (through songs, propaganda, cartoons, and film) and influence in propagating racist attitudes. Though the language of the text is at times a bit too academic for the applied classroom in which I teach, his discussion of the media’s influence over how we think and behave is an accessible and worthy topic to engage in the classroom.
As a classroom resource: while I find the text is a bit dense, Dower includes a wonderful section of very accessible graphic documents such as magazine cartoons that very clearly depict “The War in Western Eyes” and “The War in Japanese Eyes”(pp. 180-200). Students engage with these quickly and with facility, and the documents provide a wonderful opportunity to teach students Document Based Questions, an important skill to develop and an imperative for the AP classroom (see image guide handout for classroom use). As a springboard to further inquiry, there is a wealth of related documents readily available to review as well. In particular, Merrie Melodies / Loonie Toons’ "Censored Eleven" (see video guide handout for classroom use) provide a unique insight into how stereotypes and racist ideas are taught to even the youngest audiences, though one should use discretion in approaching these documents in the classroom. Always contract for a safe space, provide students with context, explain your purpose and allow sufficient time to debrief challenging materials. Also, be ready to provide victim voices and positive depictions to balance negative portrayals of any identity. Lastly, know your students and their parents.
- Cognitive Surplus: How Technology Makes Consumers into Collaborators, by Clay Shirky
While Shirky’s Cognitive Surplus does not directly address the issues of genocide or discrimination, this text is a wonderful resource for transforming our students from passive recipients of information to active upstanders, and can guide us as teachers through this process. Shirky details how the rise of the computer and the internet in the 21st Century has dramatically changed how people engage media. His key point, as the title suggests, is that people have demonstrated a measurable change in their patterns as consumers, moving away from a model of passive recipients of media products (e.g. television) to one of active producers (an amusing example he points to is LOL Cats). Shirky lists several examples (moving beyond LOL Cats) of how this shift in the control of production means that as individuals, we now have more control to produce good than at any point in history.
As a classroom resource: the first example Shirky lists to this end is Ushahidi, a site whose name means ‘testimony’ or ‘witness’ in Swahili. This is a web based program that has relied on the contribution of volunteers to spread awareness of events. Designed during the social upheavals in Kenya in 2007-2008, Ushahidi demonstrated a huge influence over political behaviour, and was operated at an individual level (for further information see Texting Talk). Ushahidi is a wonderful example of how individuals can be upstanders, and how as upstanders they can effect change. Jumping off from Ushahidi, we can explore other Web 2.0 tools (such as Glogster, Prezi, Bubbl.us, etc.) to produce our own multimedia products, use social networking sites (such as Facebook, My Space, Google+, etc) and employ online publishing tools (Wordpress… ironic emoticon here) to effect social change. Other prominent examples of sites dedicated to the harnessing of positive collaborative power include Change.org, DonorsChoose.org and Kickstarter.com.
For a succinct review of the book, see Shirky’s TED Talk on Cognitive Surplus.